Sunday, February 23, 2014
Lord’s Day 8
24. How are these articles divided?
Into three parts: the first is of God the Father and our
creation; the second, of God the Son and our
redemption; the third, of God the Holy Spirit and our
 1 Pt 1:2
25. Since there is but one Divine Being, why do
you speak of three persons: Father, Son, and Holy
Because God has so revealed Himself in His
Word, that these three distinct persons are the
one, true, eternal God.
 Deut 6:4; Isa 44:6, 45:5; 1 Cor 8:4-6;  Gen 1:2-3;
Ps 110:1; Isa 61:1, 63:8-10; Mt 3:16-17, 28:18-19; Lk
4:18; Jn 14:26, 15:26; 2 Cor 13:14; Gal 4:6; Tit 3:5-6
Saturday, February 22, 2014
Question 20. Are all men, then, as they perished in Adam, saved by Christ?
Answer. No; only those who are ingrafted into him, and receive all his benefits by a true faith.
Having explained the mode of our deliverance through Christ, we must now inquire carefully who are made partakers of this deliverance, and in what manner it is effected; whether all, or only some are made partakers thereof. If none are made partakers of it, it has been accomplished in vain. This twentieth question is, therefore, preparatory to the doctrine of faith, without which neither the Mediator, nor the preaching of the gospel, would be of any advantage. At the same time it provides a remedy against carnal security, and furnishes an answer to that base calumny which makes Christ the minister of sin.
The answer to this question consists of two parts:—Salvation through Christ is not bestowed upon all who perished in Adam; but only upon those who, by a true faith, are ingrafted into Christ, and receive all his benefits.
Question 16. Why must he be very man, and also perfectly righteous?
Answer. Because the justice of God requires that the same human nature, which hath sinned, should likewise make satisfaction for sin; and one, who is himself a sinner, cannot satisfy for others.
It behooved our Mediator to be man, and indeed very man, and perfectly righteous.
First, It behooved him to be man. 1. Because it was man that sinned. It was necessary, therefore, that man should make satisfaction for sin. “As by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin,” &c. “Since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. (Rom. 5:12. 1 Cor. 15:21.) 2. That he might be able to die. It was necessary that he should make satisfaction for us by his death, and by the shedding of his blood, because it had been declared, “Thou shalt surely die.” “Without the shedding of blood there is no remission.” (Gen. 2:17. Heb. 9:22.)
A decade ago, they stood as the leading voices for our evangelical future. We all know what happened since. But do we know why? By Kevin Miller
This sharp piece from Kevin Miller is a fresh, ecclesiological take on the ironic evangelical trend away from the Church. Ponder with me, all you with wings of wax. -From Christianity Today Read it here.
Friday, February 21, 2014
My rating: 4 of 5 stars
“Reinhold and H. Richard Niebuhr are two of the most influential American theologians of the twentieth century. Between them they have affected conversations in theology, politics, ethics, and philosophy for more than half a century, and their influence seems only to increase over time. Jointly, they may have inspired more—and more diverse—theological movements than most other modern theologians can lay claim to.”
This is the point that The Neibuhr Brothers for Armchair Theologians sets out to prove and it does a pretty decent job at it.
The brothers, and this book, addressed so many crucial aspects of life and theology that I cannot help but agree with the idea that we are in, or at least primed for, a Neibuhr brother resurgence. It also struck me, as it has in other works recently, that we are a bit enslaved to our cultural milieu in regards to how we perceive truths and understand how we should interact with our world. Reading about the progression of Richard and Reinhold and a bit of the world they lived in and how they lived in that world was fascinating and prompted much introspection as to how, but more so why, I interact with the world and think about things the way I do.
This text employs cartoons, about 1 every 5 pages or so, to aid in the understanding and enjoyment of this book. And that is exactly what it does. The cartoons are wonderful. It is surprising how well key distinctions and complex ideas can be clearly conveyed with the cartoons included.
The effects of the Neibhur brothers, especially Reinhold, are felt to this day and to the highest heights of American polity. Much could be written about Neibuhr’s effect on our White House but (then) Senator Obama makes it clear when sharing what he learned from the younger Neibuhr brother:
“I take away the compelling idea that there’s always serious evil in the world, and hardship and pain. And we should be humble and modest in our belief we can eliminate those things. But we shouldn’t use that as an excuse for cynicism and inaction. I take away…the sense we have to make these efforts knowing they are hard, and not swinging from naïve idealism to bitter realism.”
“All theology begins with Amos.” Or so Reinhold was reported to have claimed. What does that mean? I have no idea. This would be one of the biggest downfalls of this volume. Statements are made that are intriguing but they are not fully, if at all, developed. It could get frustrating at times, but it was a minor flaw that showed itself a small, small amount of the time.
The influence of the Neibuhr brothers is greater than I ever knew. Whether this is good or bad is probably too simplistic of an answer. There is much good to be mined from each and likewise there is much to be discarded. Reinhold having an atheist fan group would be a good sign that his legacy is not as God-entrenched as it probably need be, but we would do well not to throw baby out with the bathwater with these two brothers.
This book is a clear and fun recounting of the lives of Richard and Reinhold Neibuhr in in light of their thought and teaching. It is readable and quite informative. This volume of the Armchair Theologian series definitely leaves the reader with a desire to dive into primary sources and learn even more about the brothers, from the brothers.
I received a review copy from the publisher for my review.
Tuesday, February 18, 2014
Sunday, February 16, 2014
20. Are all men, then, saved by Christ as they have
perished in Adam?
No, only those who by true faith are ingrafted into
Him and receive all His benefits.
 Ps 2:12; Mt 7:14; Jn 1:12-13, 3:16, 18, 36; Rom.
11:16-21; 1 Cor 15:22; Heb 4:2-3, 10:39
21. What is true faith?
True faith is not only a sure knowledge whereby I
hold for truth all that God has revealed to us in His
Word, but also a hearty trust, which the Holy
Spirit works in me by the Gospel, that not only
to others, but to me also, forgiveness of sins,
everlasting righteousness, and salvation are freely
given by God, merely of grace, only for the sake of
 Jn 17:3, 17; Heb 11:1-3; Jas 1:6, 2:19;  Rom 4:16-21, 5:1, 10:10; Heb 4:16;  2 Cor 4:13; Php 1:19, 29;  Acts 16:4; Rom 1:16, 10:17; 1 Cor 1:21;  Gal 2:20; Rom. 1:17; Heb 10:10, 11:1-2;  Acts 10:43; Rom 3:20-26; Gal 2:16; Eph 2:7-10
22. What, then, is necessary for a Christian to
All that is promised us in the Gospel, which the
articles of our catholic, undoubted Christian faith
teach us in summary.
 Mt 28:19-20; Jn 20:30-31; 2 Tim 3:15; 2 Pt 1:21
~~The Apostles’ Creed
23. What are these articles?
I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of
heaven and earth.
And in Jesus Christ, His only
begotten Son, our Lord: who was conceived by the
Holy Spirit, born of the virgin Mary, suffered under
Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; He
descended into hell; the third day He rose again from
the dead; He ascended into heaven, and sits at the
right hand of God the Father Almighty; from there
He shall come to judge the living and the dead.
I believe in the Holy Spirit, a holy catholic Church, the
communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the
resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting.
Saturday, February 15, 2014
Monday, February 10, 2014
After several weeks of working together in adjoining cubicles, Jeff and Sharon picked up hints that they were both Christians. One day, Jeff asked his coworker, “Are you saved?” Sharon replied, “I think I am,” not because she wasn’t sure that she belonged to Christ but because she was unfamiliar with this way of putting it. Jeff asked Sharon how she came to know Christ — to give her personal testimony, and she said that she was baptized, grew up hearing sermons and participating in the public service, was catechized, and was eventually confirmed. After making a public profession of faith before the elders and then the whole congregation, she received her first Communion and was still a communicant member at her church. “Yes,” Jeff pressed, “but do you have a personal relationship with Jesus?” “What do you mean by that?” Sharon wondered. “I mean, you’ve talked a lot about ‘churchy’ stuff, but when were you born again?” Sharon was stumped. “I don’t know,” she shrugged. “I guess I’ve always been a Christian.” With genuine concern, Jeff began to talk to Sharon as someone who didn’t really know Christ in a saving way.
For many Christians, especially evangelicals, the public means of grace (preaching, baptism, and the Lord’s Supper) are “churchy,” different from — if not antithetical to — one’s private, personal, and unmediated relationship with Christ. For many of us, it’s counterintuitive to speak of the Spirit’s work through creaturely means. The assumption quite often is that the Spirit’s canvas is noncreaturely — a divine spirit or soul within each individual — and that he paints with secret strokes of invisible oils. Perhaps when we think of the Father, creation of the material world comes to mind. When we think of the Son, Jesus of Nazareth, the incarnate God is in view. However, when we think of the Holy Spirit, we see him working directly, immediately, spontaneously, and inwardly in our hearts — in the realm of the invisible. For Jeff, mention of the Holy Spirit does not ordinarily provoke thoughts about preaching, baptism, and the Lord’s Supper, except perhaps as a way of contrasting genuine rebirth and external rituals.
Many of us were raised with the assumption that people who talk about sacraments trust in rituals rather than in Christ. Belonging to Christ and belonging to the visible church were seen as two different things. Often in this environment, preaching is simply teaching: instruction and exhortation. It can be done as effectively in small group settings or in personal devotions as in formal church services, and a teacher need only be ordained from within, by the Holy Spirit, not outwardly by the visible church. In Jeff’s thinking, ordinary sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s Supper are not God’s means of grace, but our means of obedience. The purpose of preaching is to teach us what to believe and to do, in baptism we testify to our commitment to follow Christ, and in the Lord’s Supper we strengthen our love for and commitment to Jesus by remembering his death for us. The emphasis throughout falls on getting us to do something: to learn and follow (in preaching), to commit (in baptism) and to recommit (in the Lord’s Supper). For Jeff, these activities may be resources he can use in his personal relationship with Jesus, but he doesn’t think of them as the means that the Spirit uses to bring about and confirm this relationship.
At the other extreme, however, many Christians have tended toward an almost superstitious attachment to rituals, leading to a barren formalism. It may in fact be the case that Sharon was trusting in her churchly socialization, rather than in Christ. Perhaps, for her, being a Christian was like being a Republican or a Democrat. Who knows whether Christ was actually proclaimed to her each week or whether her public profession of faith was genuine? She may think of baptism or first Communion as a rite of passage to adulthood, like countless rituals that mark coming-of-age in different societies and religions. According to surveys, most young people raised in the church (across the whole spectrum) cannot tell you what their church teaches concerning the Lord’s Supper. So perhaps her church experience is nothing but an empty ritual that Sharon goes through, mumbling the prayers along with everyone else, while she’s thinking about meeting up with her friends after the service. Yes, people can indeed trust in rituals rather than in Christ. In fact, this happens in evangelical contexts, too, where the “Are you saved?” question is answered by referring not to their baptism, which Christ did ordain, but to the altar call or the sinner’s prayer, which he did not.
In contrast to both cold, ecclesiastical formalism and warm, enthusiastic individualism, Scripture provides us with a completely different paradigm for thinking about the relationship between the Spirit, the church, and the means of grace. We shouldn’t let ourselves be pressed into a false choice between trusting in external forms that have power in themselves to save and believing that the Spirit ordinarily works apart from these forms. As we have seen, created matter has been the medium of the Spirit’s artistry in creation, providence, the history of Israel, and the incarnation, life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The same is true in his application of Christ’s work to us here and now.
Excerpted from Chapter 15 of Pilgrim Theology by Michael Horton.
Sunday, February 9, 2014
My rating: 5 of 5 stars
Have you ever wanted to read a biography of a church? Yeah, me neither. It is not that I was opposed to reading a biography of a church…I just had never considered it. I honestly didn’t know that anyone had written one. I didn’t even know that it was possible to write one and, if I did, I wouldn’t expect it to be of any interest to just about anyone outside of that particular church body. You know, like church cookbooks. ;-)
But Replant, a new book from Acts 29 via David C Cook by Mark Devine and Darrin Patrick, is an amazing book. It is not a how-to, not at all. It is a narrative of the resurrection of a local church body, the re-emergence of a thriving Gospel ministry in a tough, urban context.
I do not know exactly what I was expecting when I began reading this book. I think I was expecting more technical and pragmatic instruction. Honestly, even though early on the authors warn that this is not a “how-to”, I expected a “how-to”. What I was not expecting is what I got. I was not expecting to sit down at 8:45 and be reading appendix w at 10:45(much more a testament to this books readability and engrossing nature than my own reading ability). I was not expecting to literally laugh out loud time and again as the authors offered cutting and accurate critique of some traditions that I have personally suffered through (the labelling of the open business meeting as “The Devil’s Workshop” was equal parts insight, humor, and just plain sad). I was not expecting to be brought to tears on multiple occasions as I rejoiced with the authors at the amazing, overwhelming, unrelenting work of God that was experience in their lives. I was not expecting to be so encouraged, so edified, so excited about what God is still doing in the midst of this Midwestern city.
I also was not expecting such an enjoyable narrative. Devine is a great story teller and I genuinely felt compelled to “turn” the page(or whatever you do to an ebook) and see what God was going to do next. This is a must read for all who love the Church and are, or want to be, excited about the plans God has for this world, this country, these cities, and (although outside of the main focus of Acts 29) even little rural churches that can still be rescued from the lingering death they currently endure.
This book is a winner and you would do yourself a service by reading it and sharing it with others. Get yourself a copy and get one for your pastor/elders/ministry leaders/deacons/ DOM/ whomever you want to be encouraged in the ongoing work of our great God and King.
I received a copy of this book from the publisher for review purposes.
God's Wisdom by Sally Michael
My rating: 4 of 5 stars
There are some parts of Scripture that I have an exceptionally hard time understanding. One part of God’s created order that I fully understand is that He has blessed me with a family and part of this blessing is the responsibility to raise my children in the fear and admonition of the Lord. That includes teaching them the Scriptures—even the parts that I struggle with understanding.
One of the parts of Scripture that I am responsible and privileged to teach my children yet I myself struggle through so often is teaching the wisdom aspects of God’s Word. Personally, I have a difficult time with how to avoid reading a grace-less/meritorious mindset into the passages while still maintaining the imperative nature of much of this genre of teaching. That is one reason why I was quite interested in this work from P&R, for myself and for my children.
God’s Wisdom is a strong work an important and oft-neglected aspect of God’s character and our Christian growth. The lessons covered the breadth of Scripture and were often opportunities for Gospel proclamation and explanation. There were times I felt some of the lessons lacked a Gospel focus and had the meritorious mindset that wisdom teaching often elicits. I wish I could say definitively if this was a deficiency in the work or in this particular reader, or a combination of the two, but in all honesty I am just not sure. However, based on my own struggles and the deserved reputation of P&R Publishing and Children Desiring God, I think that the problem might lie close to home! What stood out to me more were the many times that the discussion of God’s wisdom were Gospel saturated, something that has been sorely lacking in much of my study of this topic, particularly in works geared towards children.
The hard heart is the heart that loves foolishness. Only God can change a hard heart into a wise heart. We all have foolish hearts that love what is wrong and bad. But when a person trusts in Jesus to forgive his sins and be his Savior, Jesus gives that person a new heart—a heart that wants to walk in the way of the wise. Then that person loves wisdom and wants more and more to learn what is good and right and how to walk in God’s ways. He knows wisdom is a treasure that protects us from what is wrong and hurtful. When he is disciplined, he is glad when the folly is driven out of his heart. He wants to please God and do what is right, so he looks for wisdom.
God’s Wisdom has Scripture passages to read and discuss and activities to enforce the teaching. The activities often have open-ended questions that are great for Gospel conversations. We, as a family, attempted to utilize this in family worship a few times but, at least for us, God’s Wisdom was better utilized in other times of teaching due to its length and the interactive aspect of much of it. I also could see this being utilized well in a Sunday school format.
God’s Wisdom is a work that is quite focused and deals specifically with one aspect of God’s revelation and it does so very well. Due to the focus of the work, I feel it is of best service in a supplemental role. But what an impressive supplement it is. This is a great book to dive into with your children and seek the wisdom that comes from God.
I received a copy of this book from the publisher for reviewing purpose.
16. Why must He be a true and righteous man?
Because the justice of God requires that the same
human nature which has sinned should make
satisfaction for sin; but one who is himself a sinner
cannot satisfy for others.
 Rom 5:12, 15; 1 Cor 15:21; Heb 2:14-16;  Isa 53:3-5; Heb 7:26-27; 1 Pt 3:18
17. Why must He also be true God?
That by the power of His Godhead He might bear
in His manhood the burden of God’s wrath, and
so obtain for and restore to us righteousness and
 Isa 9:5;  Dt 4:24; Isa 53:8; Ps 130:3; Nah 1:6; Acts
2:24;  Jn 3:16; Acts 20:28;  Isa 53:5, 11; 2 Cor 5:21;
1 Jn 1:2
18. But who now is that Mediator, who in one person
is true God and also a true and righteous man?
Our Lord Jesus Christ, who is freely given unto us
for complete redemption and righteousness. 
 Mt 1:21-23; Lk 2:11; 1 Tim 2:5, 3:16;  Acts 4:12; 1
19. From where do you know this?
From the Holy Gospel, which God Himself first
revealed in Paradise, afterwards proclaimed by
the holy patriarchs and prophets, and
foreshadowed by the sacrifices and other ceremonies
of the law, and finally fulfilled by His well-beloved Son.
 Gen 3:15;  Gen 12:3, 22:18, 49:10-11;  Isa 53;
Jer 23:5-6; Mic 7:18-20; Acts 3:22-24, 10:43; Rom 1:2;
Heb 1:1;  Lev 1:7; Jn 5:46; Heb 10:1-10;  Rom
10:4; Gal 4:4-5; Col 2:17; Heb 10:1
Tuesday, February 4, 2014
My rating: 5 of 5 stars
I really enjoy biographies. There is something about hearing the story of someone’s life, when told properly and well, that can be moving and encouraging. They can go far in putting people in proper perspective and, when of authors or leaders, lead to a greater understanding of their work.
Alister McGrath is a brilliant author and his work on C. S. Lewis will be the definitive work for time to come. McGrath took his affinity for history and theology and utilized his skills to offer the world a brilliant, extensive work on a novelist, theologian, and, most importantly, a redeemed sinner.
I came to this work with a very limited knowledge of all things Lewis. For those who are more familiar, much of the gold that stood out to me might simply be old hat. However, McGrath is brilliant in his presentation and I strongly feel even Lewis experts will enjoy the fruit of his efforts.
Lewis and Tolkien. I thoroughly enjoyed how McGrath traced this tumultuous relationship from its beginning to its end. It is interesting, to say the least, to see Narnia and Middle-Earth intersect, to see such great minds interact as normal people.
Tolkien was not the only relationship that Lewis enjoyed/endured during his life. His relationship with his father was a strained one and the death of his father during Lewis’ absence doubtlessly influenced the remainder of his life. Mrs. Robinson…I mean Mrs. Moore enjoyed a, at least it seemed to me, seedy relationship with young Lewis that lasted for a good part of his life.
This was not the only love interest that seemed much out of place. Lewis’ wife of his later years was a good deed turned bad deal turned love of his life, the death of whom led Lewis to what has been misdiagnosed as a reversion to agnosticism in A Grief Observed.
Lewis’ relationship with academia in England was even strained due to decisions of his and, mostly, due to his popular reception with the common audience.
A real unique aspect of McGrath’s work is how he sets out to make a case for that Lewis’s conversion has been misdated, even questioning Lewis’ on account based on primary documents, specifically Lewis’ correspondence. Whether you come to agree with McGrath or not, it is interesting to see him develop his argument and to go down the road of “What qualifies as a conversion?” to which this investigation can easily lead.
Lewis was an apologist, but definitely not an Evangelical. It is interesting to me how often he is unequivocally received my many who, when pressed, would strongly hold many differing views on doctrines as serious as the atonement, people who in every other case would reject seemingly reject a “Mere Christianity” in favor of sharp denominational divisions.
When we reach the point of Lewis’ death in 1964, the same day as President Kennedy, you are so invested in CS Lewis that it is hard not to experience the angst and grief you would feel from the loss of someone you genuinely knew. I am constantly amazed at this in reading well written works of history or even fiction.
McGrath saves room at the end to go into detail about the resounding legacy of Lewis’ works and how they have interacted with and changed so many readers, young and old. Although his influence was deemed to be “on the wane” in the mid 1960’s, the rumors of this demise were certainly exaggerated.
I learned much about CS Lewis. What stood out to me the most was that Lewis was a flawed, weak, sinful person. Just like me. Lewis was a sinner who was saved by grace. Just like me! Should he be put up on a pedestal? No. Should he be set before someone as the example of how to live? No. Should he be worshiped? No. There is one Lord. One Savior. One who is worthy of worship. CS Lewis is not God but because of the finished work of Christ on the cross He is now in the loving presence of God. And that is what He would want you to remember about his life. I am certain of it!
My rating: 4 of 5 stars
There has been no greater claim in the history of man than the claims made in regards to Jesus of Nazareth.
*Born of a virgin.
*Vicarious, substitutionary, sacrificial death.
*Physically rising from the dead on the third day and ascending bodily into heaven to sit enthroned next to His Father.
*Being the only way to eternal peace and joy in the presence of Eternal God.
These are some pretty serious claims that no thinking person can simply dismiss. Whether resulting in affirmation or denial, time and thought must be devoted to this son of a carpenter for who even our time has been measured against. These claims (whether you presuppose to be made by Him or by later followers) must be investigated because they are, if true, world changing.
One of the central claims of the Christian faith is the claim of His bodily resurrection. This tenet of Christianity is one by which the entire Kingdom stands or falls. All the other claims are shown to have merit based on this “sign of Jonah” (Luke 11:29-30). It is so central that the Apostle Paul claims that if it is untrue then Christians are “the most to be pitied” because our “faith is futile” (1 Cor 15)
The resurrection of Jesus is paramount. “At the center of historic Christian faith is belief that a Jewish man named Jesus was ‘raised’.“ It is inseparable from Biblical Christianity and without it Christianity is a sham that offers no hope, no peace, and nothing of any distinguishable value.
This is the reason that resources like Zondervan’s, Raised: Finding Jesus by Doubting the Resurrection, is a welcome addition to any library. Dodson and Watson both have pastor’s hearts and are capable writers. They deal with this topic with the seriousness and honesty that is necessary for both believer and skeptic alike to benefit greatly from this work.
Why does a believer need this book? Because it is clear that Christians are not free from reality of doubt. Especially in regards to something as great and as based on sightless faith as is the Resurrection. Anyone who genuinely investigates and seeks and searches and wonders and honestly engages differing positions will be struck head on by doubt more often than is desired. If someone is not attacked by doubt from time to time then it is hard to imagine that he or she is properly interacting with truth claims that are contrary.
So what is one to do when, in this instance, filled with doubt about the truth of the resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth? The answer is not, “Dig your head as deep in the sand as possible until the evil doubt monster flees from your unbathed ostrich stench.” The answer is to investigate your doubt thoroughly and honestly knowing that truth is a) what you desire and b)destined to win in the end.
Why do skeptics need a book like this? Because, if it ends up that the claims of Jesus of Nazareth were validated by the “sign of Jonah", His being raised from the dead, acceptance or rejection of this truth has consequences that are eternal. There is nothing that is of greater importance that this truth claim. Is there a God? Is this Jesus the Eternal and sinless Son of God? Is He the only way for eternal peace with the Sovereign Creator? It is imperative that all, even agnostics and skeptics are certain and convinced about something of such great importance.
Raised? Finding Jesus by Doubting the Resurrection is a resource that will benefit both believer and skeptic alike. The authors explore doubts and proofs, the prominence and preeminence of the resurrection within the narrative of Scripture and the unfolding of history, the resurrection as proof of Jesus’ power to resurrect and transform, the power to give life and transform lives, and how the resurrection creates new authority, new identity and a new mission for those who are in the resurrection, united with the Resurrected One.
There is nothing new in this book. The topics covered and the evidence given are not groundbreaking scholarship. What this book is; however, is a beautiful, simple, clear, fresh, encouraging reminder of a life-changing, world-changing, truth. A truth that is too astounding, too amazing, too absurd to not be investigated and embraced. My encouragement is to come and read. He is risen! He is risen, indeed!! And that changes everything.
I received a copy of this book from the publisher for review.
Sunday, February 2, 2014
12. Since, then, by the righteous judgment of God we
deserve temporal and eternal punishment, how may
we escape this punishment and be again received
God wills that His justice be satisfied; therefore,
we must make full satisfaction to that justice, either
by ourselves or by another.
 Ex 20:5, 23:7; Rom 2:1-11;  Isa 53:11; Rom 8:3-4
13. Can we ourselves make this satisfaction?
Certainly not; on the contrary, we daily increase our
 Job 9:2-3, 15:15-16; Ps 130:3; Mt 6:12, 16:26; Rom
14. Can any mere creature make satisfaction for us?
None; for first, God will not punish any other
creature for the sin which man committed; and
further, no mere creature can sustain the burden of
God’s eternal wrath against sin and redeem others
 Ezek 18:4, 20; Heb 2:14-18;  Ps 130:3; Nah 1:6
15. What kind of mediator and redeemer, then, must
One who is a true and righteous man, and yet
more powerful than all creatures, that is, one who is
also true God.
 1 Cor 15:21-22, 25-26; Heb 2:17;  Isa 53:11; Jer
13:16; 2 Cor 5:21; Heb 7:26;  Isa 7:14, 9:6; Jer 23:6; Jn
1:1; Rom 8:3-4; Heb 7:15-16